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Scientists Create Tool to Interpret Pig Emotions

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Scientists Create Tool to Interpret Pig Emotions

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今回取りあげる VOA Learning Englishに掲載された記事は、 研究者によって豚の感情を読み解くツールが開発されたという記事です。
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Researchers say they have created a technology tool that uses pig sounds to interpret different emotions the animal is feeling.

The tool is based on thousands of recordings collected from more than 400 pigs throughout their lives. The scientists developed an algorithm that seeks to identify a series of emotions the animals could be experiencing.

The research may lead to creation of an app that farmers could use to learn the emotional state of animals in an effort to improve their productivity and well-being.

An international team cooperated in the experiments that led to creation of the algorithm. The team was led by researchers from the University of Copenhagen, ETH Zurich in Switzerland and France’s National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment.

The results recently appeared in a study in the publication Scientific Reports.

Pigs are known for having highly developed vocal skills. The researchers state in the study that pigs make different noises based on what they are experiencing at the time they make the sounds. And these sounds can be linked to different emotions. Emotions are generally caused “by the evaluation that an individual makes of its environmental situation,” the study states.

The study centered on more than 7,000 audio recordings of pigs in different situations, from the time they were born until they died. The recordings were collected in both natural and experimental settings.

The team organized the sounds to link them with different situations and activities the pigs were involved in. The behavior of the pigs was observed in both positive and negative situations.

Positive situations included when pigs were being fed by the mother or were reunited with family members after being separated. Negative situations included separations, fights between pigs, castration or being prepared for slaughter.

The researchers also studied the pigs in controlled environments. During these experiments, some of the pigs were given different foods and objects, while others were not. Behaviors of the animals were followed and pig sounds were recorded, along with notes on their physical reactions.

The team examined the recorded material and attempted to identify similarities in the sounds linked to different situations and emotions. The goal was to differentiate positive situations and emotions from negative ones.

The researchers said higher-pitched sounds were usually measured in negative situations, while lower-pitched calls were linked to both positive or negative emotions.

"With this study, we demonstrate that animal sounds provide great insight into their emotions,” Associate Professor Elodie Briefer said in a statement. Briefer, with the University of Copenhagen’s Department of Biology, was a lead writer of the study.

"There are clear differences in pig calls when we look at positive or negative situations,” Briefer added. She noted that in positive situations, the sounds were far shorter, with few changes in strength levels. On the other hand, lower-pitched “grunt” sounds usually began high, but then dropped lower.

By training the algorithm to recognize the sounds in different situations, the team said it was able to identify the correct emotion 92 percent of the time.

Briefer said that with additional data and training, the algorithm can be a valuable tool for helping to improve the emotional health of pigs and other farm animals in the future.

“Now, we need someone who wants to develop the algorithm into an app that farmers can use to improve the welfare of their animals,” Briefer said.

I’m Bryan Lynn.

Bryan Lynn wrote this story, based on reports from the University of Copenhagen and Scientific Reports.


Words in This Story

interpret – v. explain or decide what a particular phrase, action, etc. means

algorithm – n. a set of steps that are followed in order to solve a mathematical problem or to complete a computer process

app – n. a computer program that performs a special function, usually found on mobile phones

evaluation – n. a careful study of something to decide how good or bad it is

positive – adj. a good or happy situation

negative – adj. a bad or sad situation

castration – n. the removal of sex organs

slaughter – n. the killing of an animal for food

pitch – n. a level of a particular sound

insight – n. the ability to understand what something is really like

この英文には日本語訳があります。日本語訳はナラボー・プレスが作成しています。
日本語訳を表示をする場合はボタンをおしてください。 

 

【日本語訳】

Scientists Create Tool to Interpret Pig Emotions
豚の感情を読み解くツールを科学者が開発

Researchers say they have created a technology tool that uses pig sounds to interpret different emotions the animal is feeling.
研究者は、豚の鳴き声を使って、動物が感じているさまざまな感情を解釈する技術ツールを作成したと発表しました。

The tool is based on thousands of recordings collected from more than 400 pigs throughout their lives. The scientists developed an algorithm that seeks to identify a series of emotions the animals could be experiencing.
このツールは、400頭以上の豚から生涯にわたって収集された何千もの録音を基にしています。研究者らは、動物が経験している可能性のある一連の感情を特定しようとするアルゴリズムを開発しました。

The research may lead to creation of an app that farmers could use to learn the emotional state of animals in an effort to improve their productivity and well-being.
この研究は、農家が動物の生産性と幸福度を向上させるために、動物の感情状態を知るためのアプリの作成につながる可能性があります。

An international team cooperated in the experiments that led to creation of the algorithm. The team was led by researchers from the University of Copenhagen, ETH Zurich in Switzerland and France’s National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment.
アルゴリズムの作成に至る実験には、国際的なチームが協力しました。コペンハーゲン大学、スイスのチューリッヒ工科大学、フランスの農業・食品・環境国立研究所の研究者がチームを率いています。

The results recently appeared in a study in the publication Scientific Reports.
この成果は、このほど『Scientific Reports』誌に掲載されました。

Pigs are known for having highly developed vocal skills. The researchers state in the study that pigs make different noises based on what they are experiencing at the time they make the sounds. And these sounds can be linked to different emotions. Emotions are generally caused “by the evaluation that an individual makes of its environmental situation,” the study states.
豚は高度に発達した発声能力を持つことで知られています。研究者らはこの研究の中で、豚は音を出すときに経験していることに基づいて、さまざまな音を出すと述べています。そしてこれらの音は、さまざまな感情と結びついている。感情は一般に「個体が環境状況を評価することによって」引き起こされると、研究者は述べています。

The study centered on more than 7,000 audio recordings of pigs in different situations, from the time they were born until they died. The recordings were collected in both natural and experimental settings.
研究の中心は、生まれてから死ぬまで、さまざまな状況に置かれた豚の7,000回以上の音声記録です。録音は、自然環境と実験環境の両方で収集されました。

The team organized the sounds to link them with different situations and activities the pigs were involved in. The behavior of the pigs was observed in both positive and negative situations.
研究チームは、ブタが関与したさまざまな状況や活動に関連付けるため、音声を整理しました。豚の行動は、ポジティブな場面とネガティブな場面の両方で観察されました。

Positive situations included when pigs were being fed by the mother or were reunited with family members after being separated. Negative situations included separations, fights between pigs, castration or being prepared for slaughter.
ポジティブな状況とは、豚が母親から餌をもらっているときや、離れ離れになっていた家族と再会したときなどです。ネガティブな状況とは、分離、豚同士の戦い、去勢、屠殺の準備などです。

The researchers also studied the pigs in controlled environments. During these experiments, some of the pigs were given different foods and objects, while others were not. Behaviors of the animals were followed and pig sounds were recorded, along with notes on their physical reactions.
さらに研究者たちは、コントロールされた環境下での豚の研究も行いました。この実験では、ある豚には異なる食物や物を与え、別の豚には与えないというものでした。豚の行動を観察し、豚の鳴き声を記録し、豚の身体的な反応も記録しました。

The team examined the recorded material and attempted to identify similarities in the sounds linked to different situations and emotions. The goal was to differentiate positive situations and emotions from negative ones.
録音されたものを調べ、さまざまな状況や感情に関連する音の共通点を見出そうとしたのです。その目的は、ポジティブな状況や感情とネガティブな状況を区別することにあります。

The researchers said higher-pitched sounds were usually measured in negative situations, while lower-pitched calls were linked to both positive or negative emotions.
研究者によると、高い音は通常ネガティブな状況で測定され、低い音はポジティブまたはネガティブな感情のどちらにも関連することがわかったとのことです。

"With this study, we demonstrate that animal sounds provide great insight into their emotions,” Associate Professor Elodie Briefer said in a statement. Briefer, with the University of Copenhagen’s Department of Biology, was a lead writer of the study.
Elodie Briefer准教授は、「この研究により、動物の鳴き声が感情を見抜く大きなヒントになることを実証しました」と声明の中で述べています。コペンハーゲン大学生物学部のBriefer准教授は、この研究の主執筆者です。

"There are clear differences in pig calls when we look at positive or negative situations,” Briefer added. She noted that in positive situations, the sounds were far shorter, with few changes in strength levels. On the other hand, lower-pitched “grunt” sounds usually began high, but then dropped lower.
「ブタの鳴き声には、肯定的な状況と否定的な状況において、明らかな違いがあります」と、Briefer氏は付け加えました。ポジティブな状況では、鳴き声はずっと短く、強さのレベルもほとんど変化しない、と彼女は述べています。一方、低音で鳴く「イサキ」の場合、一般的には最初は高く、その後低くなります。

By training the algorithm to recognize the sounds in different situations, the team said it was able to identify the correct emotion 92 percent of the time.
研究チームは、さまざまな状況で音を認識するようにアルゴリズムを訓練することで、92%の確率で正しい感情を識別することができたといいます。

Briefer said that with additional data and training, the algorithm can be a valuable tool for helping to improve the emotional health of pigs and other farm animals in the future.
Briefer氏によると、このアルゴリズムは、データを追加して訓練すれば、将来的に豚やその他の家畜の感情の健康状態を改善するための貴重なツールになり得るとのことです。

“Now, we need someone who wants to develop the algorithm into an app that farmers can use to improve the welfare of their animals,” Briefer said.
「今、私たちは、農家が動物の福祉を向上させるために使用できるアプリにアルゴリズムを開発したい人を必要としています。」とBriefer氏は述べています。

I’m Bryan Lynn.
Bryan Lynnです。

Bryan Lynn wrote this story, based on reports from the University of Copenhagen and Scientific Reports.
Bryan Lynnは、コペンハーゲン大学およびScientific Reportsの報告に基づいてこの記事を書きました。

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